ELISA is a test used in the identification of substances using reagents and antibodies. The presence of the substance can be noted by the changes in color. The enzyme, known as immunoassay, is an antigen that is used in the detection of the foreign substance. ELISA has been a very helpful tool in medicine as it has helped in the diagnosis of several diseases. Its level of accuracy is very high.
The process of ELISA involves the mixing of the antigens and the antibodies in a bid to examine their reaction. This test is done in a laboratory test tube. An enzyme is linked to the antibody and the substrate of the enzyme is added. A reaction takes place after the mixing is done. The substrate of the enzyme is responsible for the change in colour after the reaction.
For this process to be effective, the amount of the samples used in the reaction process ought to be checked properly. It is advisable for the reagents to be in the same quantity. ELISA needs an unused antigen for at least one antibody. Reusing the antigen will not produce the best results. The purity of the antigen is crucial. The surface used for the reaction should be very clean too.
ELISA involves the detection of a substance that is undergoing a quantitative or qualitative analysis. The analysis is done using liquid reagents. A biochemical reaction is done to detect the presence of the analysed substance. The quantity or the presence of the substance can be detected by changes in the color of the liquid. The colors make the interpretation of the mixture easier.
Types of ELISA
Apart from knowing what ELISA is, it is important to understand the various types that are currently in existence. The differences between the available types are the technique used in obtaining the answers. The processes used distinguish them. The existing types include direct ELISA, sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA. It is vital to know how to choose the best one.
Since ELISA is very effective in detecting either the antigen or the antibody in a mixture, that makes it very effective in detecting some diseases. This application is used in detecting the HIV virus and the west Nile virus. Elisa is beneficial in the food industry. It is used in discovering the food allergens in milk, peanuts and other products. It can be used in screening some of the toxic drugs too.
To secure the success of the process, it is essential for a person with more knowledge about it to undertake the reaction process. A learned expert can detect possibilities of errors caused by contaminated surfaces easily. This will greatly minimize the chance of obtaining the wrong results after the reaction. Get these tests from certified experts.
Quality of the Antigens
Antigens play a crucial role in this biological process as they identify the presence of the antibodies in the mixture. For the antigens to perform their tasks well, they must be of the required standards. This will reduce the chances of making more errors when carrying out the ELISA processes.